Enhancement of sorafenib-mediated death of Hepatocellular carcinoma cells by Carnosic acid and Vitamin D2 analog combination.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Nov 5:105524. Epub 2019 Nov 5. PMID: 31704246
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer and it is the third leading cause of global cancer mortality. Sorafenib (Sf) is the first oral multi-kinase inhibitor approved for systemic treatment of advanced HCC, and can prolong survival, although only for three months longer than placebo treated patients. Preclinical studies showed that active forms of vitamin D can induce cell differentiation and regulate cell survival in several cell types, and epidemiological data link vitamin D insufficiency to an increased risk of neoplastic diseases, suggesting a potentially important role of vitamin D in cancer therapy. Other studies showed that the effect of vitamin D analogs on human neoplastic cells is potentiated by carnosic acid (CA), a plant polyphenol with anti-oxidant properties. Here we tested if the addition of the vitamin D2 analog Doxercalciferol (D2) together with CA can enhance the cytotoxic effect of Sf on HCC cell lines Huh7 (Sf-sensitive) and HCO2 (Sf-resistant). Indeed, this combination increased HCC cell death in cell lines, enhancing autophagy as well as apoptosis. Autophagy was confirmed by increased cytoplasmic vacuolation, perinuclear aggregation of LC3, and elevated protein levels of autophagy markers Beclin1, Atg3, and LC3. These results suggest that a regimen which combines a vitamin D2 analog/CA mixture with Sf can be a novel and promising therapeutic option for the treatment of HCC.