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Abstract Title:

Enhancing Immunomodulatory Function of Red Ginseng Through Fermentation UsingSubsp.LT 19-2.

Abstract Source:

Nutrients. 2019 Jun 28 ;11(7). Epub 2019 Jun 28. PMID: 31261829

Abstract Author(s):

Jae Hwan Kim, Eun-Hee Doo, Minju Jeong, Seungil Kim, Yun-Yeol Lee, Jaesik Yang, Ji Su Lee, Jong Hun Kim, Ki Won Lee, Chul Sung Huh, Sanguine Byun

Article Affiliation:

Jae Hwan Kim

Abstract:

Removal of sugar moieties from ginsenosides has been proposed to increase their biological effects in various disease models. In order to identify strains that can increase aglycone contents, we performed a screening using bacteria isolated from the feces of infants focusing on acid tolerance andβ-glucosidase activity. We isolated 565 bacteria and selectedsubsp.LT 19-2 (LT 19-2), which exhibited the highestβ-glucosidase activity with strong acid tolerance. As red ginseng (RG) has been known to exert immunomodulatory functions, we fermented RG using LT 19-2 (FRG) and investigated whether this could alter the aglycone profile of ginsenosides and improve its immunomodulatory effect. FRG increased macrophage activity more potently compared to RG, demonstrated by higher TNF-α and IL-6 production. More importantly, the FRG treatment stimulated the proliferation of mouse splenocytes and increased TNF-α levels in bone marrow-derived macrophages, confirming that the enhanced immunomodulatory functioncan be recapitulated in primary immune cells. Examination of the molecular mechanism revealed that F-RG could induce phosphorylations of ERK, p38, JNK, and NF-κB. Analysis of the ginsenoside composition showed a decrease in Rb1, Re, Rc, and Rb3, accompanied by an increase in Rd, Rh1, F2, and Rg3, the corresponding aglycone metabolites, in FRG compared to RG. Collectively, LT 19-2 maybe used as a probiotic strain to improve the bioactivity of functional foods through modifying the aglycone/glycoside profile.

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Sayer Ji
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