Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate-Loaded Liposomes Favor Anti-Inflammation of Microglia Cells and Promote Neuroprotection.
Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Mar 16 ;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 16. PMID: 33809762
Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is recognized to mainly contribute to the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), known as a natural antioxidant in green tea, can inhibit microglia-mediated inflammation and protect neurons but has disadvantages such as high instability and low bioavailability. We developed an EGCG liposomal formulation to improve its bioavailability and evaluated the neuroprotective activity in in vitro and in vivo neuroinflammation models. EGCG-loaded liposomes have been prepared from phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylserine (PS) coated with or without vitamin E (VE) by hydration and membrane extrusion method. The anti-inflammatory effect has been evaluated against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglial cells activation and the inflammation in the substantia nigra of Sprague Dawley rats. In the cellular inflammation model, murine BV-2 microglial cells changed their morphology from normal spheroid to activated spindle shape after 24 h of induction of LPS. In the in vitro free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, EGCG scavenged 80% of DPPH within 3 min. EGCG-loaded liposomes could be phagocytized by BV-2 cells after 1 h of cell culture from cell uptake experiments. EGCG-loaded liposomes improved the production of BV-2 microglia-derived nitric oxide and TNF-α following LPS. In the in vivo Parkinsonian syndrome rat model, simultaneous intra-nigral injection of EGCG-loaded liposomes attenuated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and restored motor impairment. We demonstrated that EGCG-loaded liposomes exert a neuroprotective effect by modulating microglia activation. EGCG extracted from green tea and loaded liposomes could be a valuable candidate for disease-modifying therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD).