Epigenome, transcriptome and protection by sulforaphane at different stages of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2020 Mar 11. Epub 2020 Mar 11. PMID: 32161072
Sulforaphane (SFN), a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, has been shown to protect against cancers especially at early stages. However, how SFN affects UVB-mediated epigenome/DNA methylome and transcriptome changes in skin photodamage has not been fully assessed. Herein, we investigated the transcriptomic and DNA methylomic changes during tumor initiation, promotion, and progression and its impact and reversal by SFN using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. The results show that SFN reduced tumor incidence and tumor number. SFN's protective effects were more dramatic in the early stages than with later stages. Bioinformatic analysis of RNA-seq data shows differential expressed genes (DEGs) and identifies the top canonical pathways related to SFN treatment of UVB-induced different stages of epidermal carcinogenesis. These pathways include p53 signaling, cell cycle: G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation, Th1, and Th2 activation pathway, and PTEN signaling pathways. The top upstream regulators related to UVB and SFN treatment as time progressed include dextran sulfate, TP53, NFE2L2 (Nrf2), IFNB1 and IL10RA. Bioinformatic analysis of Methyl-seq data shows several differential methylation regions (DMRs) induced by UVB were attenuated by SFN. These include Notch1, Smad6, Gnai3, and Apc2. Integrative analysis of RNA-Seq and DNA-seq/CpG methylome yields a subgroup of genes associated with UVB and SFN treatment. The changes in gene expression were inversely correlated with promoter CpG methylation status. These genes include Pik3cd, Matk, and Adm2. In conclusion, our study provides novel insights on the impact of SFN on the transcriptomic and DNA methylomic of UVB-induced different stages of skin cancer in mice.