Inhibitive Effect of Eugenol and Its Nanoemulsion on Quorum Sensing-Mediated Virulence Factors and Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
J Food Prot. 2019 Mar ;82(3):379-389. PMID: 30785306
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the quorum sensing (QS) inhibition potential of eugenol and eugenol nanoemulsion against QS-dependent virulence factor production and gene expression, as well as biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the current study, eugenol nanoemulsion at a sub-MIC of 0.2 mg/mL specifically inhibited about 50% of the QS-mediated violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum, as well as the production of N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C-HSL) and C-HSL N-acyl homoserine lactone signal molecules, pyocyanin, and swarming motility in P. aeruginosa. The inhibitive effect of eugenol and its nanoemulsion on the expression of the QS synthase genes was concentration dependent, displaying 65 and 52% expression level for lasI, respectively, and 61 and 45% expression level for rhlI, respectively, at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL. In addition, the inhibitive effect of eugenol and its nanoemulsion on the expression of the rhlA gene responsible for the production of rhamnolipid was also concentration dependent, displaying 65 and 51% expression level for the rhlA gene, respectively, at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL. Eugenol and its nanoemulsion also displayed 36 and 63% respective inhibition of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa at the 0.2 mg/mL concentration. Therefore, the nanoemulsion could be used as a novel QS-based antibacterial and antibiofilm agent for the control of harmful bacteria.