Neurochemical characterization of the enteric neurons within the porcine jejunum in physiological conditions and under the influence of bisphenol A (BPA).
Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2019 Mar 5:e13580. Epub 2019 Mar 5. PMID: 30838766
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly used in the production of plastics and has multidirectional, negative effects on the living organisms. It may also affect the enteric nervous system (ENS) located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. Enteric neurons express many active substances, which regulate majority of intestinal activities not only in physiological conditions but also under the impact of pathological factors.
METHODS: The influence of various doses of BPA on the ENS of jejunum has been investigated using the double immunofluorescence technique. The commercial antibodies against substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), galanin (GAL), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) were used.
KEY RESULTS: Both doses of BPA studied changed the number of the enteric neurons immunoreactive to SP, VIP, GAL, VAChT, and CART, and the intensity of fluctuations depended on the BPA dose and on the type of the enteric plexus. Bisphenol A causes the increase in the number of neurons immunoreactive to the majority of substances studied. The only exception was VAChT-positive neurons, the number of which was lower under the impact of BPA in the comparison with physiological conditions.
CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: Even low doses of BPA cause the changes in neurochemical characterization of the enteric neurons in the jejunum. These changes may be the first sign of subclinical BPA intoxication. The mechanisms of observed changes are probably connected with neurotoxic and/or pro-inflammatory activity of BPA, but their exact mechanisms are not fully explained.