Exercise as a therapeutic strategy for sarcopenia in heart failure. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Exercise as a Therapeutic Strategy for Sarcopenia in Heart Failure: Insights into Underlying Mechanisms.
Cells. 2020 Oct 13 ;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 13. PMID: 33066240
Sarcopenia, a syndrome commonly seen in elderly populations, is often characterized by a gradual loss of skeletal muscle, leading to the decline of muscle strength and physical performance. Growing evidence suggests that the prevalence of sarcopenia increases in patients with heart failure (HF), which is a dominant pathogenesis in the aging heart. HF causes diverse metabolic complications that may result in sarcopenia. Therefore, sarcopenia may act as a strong predictor of frailty, disability, and mortality associated with HF. Currently, standard treatments for slowing muscle loss in patients with HF are not available. Therefore, here, we review the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying sarcopenia in HF as well as current knowledge regarding the beneficial effects of exercise on sarcopenia in HF and related mechanisms, including hormonal changes, myostatin, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and insulin resistance.