Investigation of the genotoxic effect of microwave irradiation in rat bone marrow cells: in vivo exposure.
Mutagenesis. 2004 Sep ;19(5):361-4. PMID: 15388808
An in vivo mammalian cytogenetic test (the erythrocyte micronucleus assay) was used to investigate the extent of genetic damage in bone marrow red cells of rats exposed to radiofrequency/microwave (RF/MW) radiation. Wistar rats (n = 40) were exposed to a 2.45 GHz continuous RF/MW field for 2 h daily, 7 days a week, at a power density of 5-10 mW/cm(2). The whole body average specific absorption rate (SARs) was calculated to be 1.25 +/- 0.36 (SE) W/kg. Four subgroups were irradiated for 4, 16, 30 and 60 h. Sham-exposed controls (n = 24) were included in the study. The animals of each treated subgroup were killed on the final day of irradiation. Bone marrow smears were examined to determine the extent of genotoxicity after particular treatment times. The results were statistically evaluated using non-parametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. In comparison with the sham-exposed subgroups, the findings of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) revealed significant differences (P<0.05) for experimental days 8 and 15. The frequency of micronucleated PCEs was also significantly increased on experimental day 15 (P<0.05). Pair-wise comparison of data obtained after 2, 8 and 30 irradiation treatments did not reveal statistically significant differences between sham-exposed and treated subgroups. Under the applied experimental conditions the findings revealed a transient effect on proliferation and maturation of erythropoietic cells in the rat bone marrow and the sporadic appearance of micronucleated immature bone marrow red cells.