Exposure levels of air pollution (PM2.5) and associated health risk in Kuwait. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Exposure levels of air pollution (PM) and associated health risk in Kuwait.
Environ Res. 2019 Dec ;179(Pt A):108730. Epub 2019 Sep 18. PMID: 31550597
It is well established that respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates are associated with poor air quality as measured by high concentrations of fine particulate matter such as PMparameters. Since such information is lacking for the State of Kuwait, this study examined the exposure levels of PMand the associated health risk as evaluated by five mortality measures embodied in ischemic heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute lower respiratory infection as well as two morbidity outcomes related to both cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The measurement models utilized in this investigation followed the WHO guidelines. Over a span of a four-year period (2014-2017), the annual PMconcentration levels ranged from 38.0 μg/mto 75.2 μg/m. In general, exposure levels tended to fluctuate throughout the day with the higher levels recorded during rush hours (early morning and early evening), weekends (particularly Saturdays), and summer (i.e., August and September). The highest number of excess cases and attributable proportions of premature mortalities were related to ischemic heart disease and stroke at 352 (95% CI 275-426) and 70.8% (95% CI 39.7-85.2), respectively. In general, respiratory diseases showed a higher number of excess cases and attributable proportions than cardiovascular diseases. Relative to other findings on the global stage, the results emanating from Kuwait are emerging on the higher side. The study outcomes suggest that control strategies are in dire need to bend the pollution levels in Kuwait.