The toxic effects of bisphenol S showing immunomodulation in fish macrophages.
Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20. PMID: 29261303
Bisphenol S (BPS), a structural analogue of bisphenol A (BPA), has been increasingly used as a common replacement of BPA due to health concern regarding the former. However, mounting evidence suggests that BPS has similar endocrine-disrupting effects as BPA, and likewise its presence in the environment may pose considerable risks to ecosystem and human health. Using fish primary macrophages (fpMQs), we here evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of BPS and its mechanisms of action associated with estrogen receptors (ERs). Following BPS exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations from 0.1 to 1,000μg/L, we observed approximate concentration-dependent increases in nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species generation, total antioxidant capacity, as well as gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in fpMQs. BPS impaired phagocytic capability, but enhanced fpMQ activation levels in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation and promoted apoptosis, indicating an impact on cell functions. At a concentration of 100 μg/L, BPS and BPA showed comparable pro-inflammatory potential, with both up-regulating production of free radicals and cytokine expression; however, BPS had no significant potency with regards to inducing lipid peroxidation and apoptosis, different from BPA's effects. Moreover, BPS induced both erα and erβ2 expression in fpMQs, whereas BPA induced only erα expression. This study demonstrates that, similarly to BPA, exposure to low doses of BPS significantly disturbs theimmune response of fpMQs in vitro and first reveals overlapping but different roles of ERs in the response to BPS and BPA.