Gut-derived lipopolysaccharides increase post-prandial oxidative stress via Nox2 activation in patients with impaired fasting glucose tolerance: effect of extra-virgin olive oil.
Eur J Nutr. 2019 Mar ;58(2):843-851. Epub 2018 May 16. PMID: 29766292
PURPOSE: Post-prandial phase is characterized by enhanced oxidative stress but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We investigated if gut-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is implicated in this phenomenon and the effect of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG).
METHODS: This is a randomized cross-over interventional study including 30 IFG patients, to receive a lunch with or without 10 g of EVOO. Serum LPS, Apo-B48, markers of oxidative stress such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and soluble Nox2-derived peptide (sNox2-dp), a marker of nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate oxidase isoform Nox2 activation, and plasma polyphenols were determined before, 60 and 120 min after lunch.
RESULTS: In patients not given EVOO oxidative stress as assessed by sNox2-dp and oxLDL significantly increased at 60 and 120 min concomitantly with an increase of LPS and Apo-B48. In these patients, changes of LPS were correlated with Apo-B48 (Rs = 0.542, p = 0.002) and oxLDL (Rs = 0.463, p = 0.010). At 120 min, LPS (β - 15.73, p < 0.001), Apo-B48 (β - 0.14, p = 0.004), sNox2-dp (β - 5.47, p = 0.030), and oxLDL (β - 42.80, p < 0.001) significantly differed between the two treatment groups. An inverse correlation was detected between polyphenols and oxLDL (R - 0.474, p < 0.005). In vitro study showed that LPS, at the same concentrations found in the human circulation, up-regulated Nox2-derived oxidative stress via interaction with Toll-like receptor 4.
CONCLUSIONS: Post-prandial phase is characterized by an oxidative stress-related inflammation potentially triggered by LPS, a phenomenon mitigated by EVOO administration.