Extracellular vesicles in viral pathogenesis: A case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Extracellular Vesicles in Viral Pathogenesis: A Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.
Life (Basel). 2021 Jan 13 ;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 13. PMID: 33450847
Secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is a fundamental property of living cells. EVs are known to transfer biological signals between cells and thus regulate the functional state of recipient cells. Such vesicles mediate the intercellular transport of many biologically active molecules (proteins, nucleic acids, specific lipids) and participate in regulation of key physiological processes. In addition, EVs are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases: infectious, neurodegenerative, and oncological. The current EV classification into microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, and exosomes is based on their size, pathways of cellular biogenesis, and molecular composition. This review is focused on analysis of the role of EVs (mainly exosomes) in the pathogenesis of viral infection. We briefly characterize the biogenesis and molecular composition of various EV types. Then, we consider EV-mediated pro- and anti-viral mechanisms. EV secretion by infected cells can be an important factor of virus spread in target cell populations, or a protective factor limiting viral invasion. The data discussed in this review, on the effect of EV secretion by infected cells on processes in neighboring cells and on immune cells, are of high significance in the search for new therapeutic approaches and for design of new generations of vaccines.