Evaluation of acute toxicity and gastroprotective activity of curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 ;14:378. Epub 2014 Oct 6. PMID: 25283308
BACKGROUND: Curcuma purpurascens BI. is a medicinal plant from the Zingiberaceae family, which is widely used as a spice and as folk medicine. The aim of the present study is to investigate the gastroprotective activity of C. purpurascens rhizome hexane extract (CPRHE) against ethanol- induced gastric ulcers in rats.
METHODS: Acute toxicity test was carried out on 36 rats (18 males and 18 females) with low dose of CPRHE (1 g/kg), high dose of CPRHE (2 g/kg) and vehicle (5% Tween 20). To determine the gastroprotective effect of CPRHE, gastric juice acidity, gross and histological gastric lesions, mucus content and ulcer index were evaluated in ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. In addition, superoxide dismutase activity, nitric oxide level and immunohistochemical evaluation of Bax and HSP70 proteins were examined.
RESULTS: The CPRHE acute toxicity test on rats did not reveal any signs of mortality and toxicity up to 2 g/kg. The oral administration of CPRHE at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg and omeprazole (positive control) at a dose of 20 mg/kg to rats remarkably attenuated gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Pre-treatment of rats with CPRHE significantly replenished the depletion of mucus content caused by ethanol administration and decreased the acidity of gastric walls. Further examination of gastric mucosal homogenate revealed significant elevation of superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide activities and reduction in malondialdehyde level in CPRHE-treated group, compared to the lesion control group. Histological assessment of gastric walls obtained from rats pre-treated with CPRHE demonstrated a noteworthy decrease in hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. Immunohistochemical staining showed down-regulation of Bax protein and up-regulation of Hsp70 protein.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings confirmed the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma purpurascens rhizome against gastric damage.