Zingiber cassumunar ROXb. and its active constituent inhibit MMP-9 direct activation by house dust mite allergens and MMP-9 expression in PMA-stimulated human airway epithelial cells.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2015 Mar ;33(1):42-51. PMID: 25840633
BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 plays a role in asthma. Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. (Phlai in Thai) has been used in folk medicine for asthma treatment.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated effects of Phlai and its constituent (E)-4-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-1-ol (compound D) on the cleavage of pro- MMP-9 by HDM. The effects of these compounds on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)- induced MMP-9 gene and protein expression in airway epithelial cells (NCI-H292) were also investigated.
METHODS: Pro-MMP-9 was directly activated in vitro with HDM in the presence or absence of the ethanolic extracts of Phlai or compound D for 1 hour. The amount of activated MMP-9 was determined using gelatin zymography. To study the cellular response of Phlai, NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with crude Phlai extracts or compound D for 2 hours, and then the cells were stimulated with PMA for 48 hours. The mRNA RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. MMP-9 activity was determined by gelatin zymography.
RESULTS: Crude Phlai extracts (0.25 - 2.0 mg/ml) and compound D (0.5 - 4.0 mg/ml) inhibited pro- MMP-9 cleavage by HDM. Furthermore, crude Phlai extracts (100 mg/ml) and compound D, at concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/ml, attenuated the PMA-induced MMP-9 gene and expression in NCI-H292 cells. These compound also suppressed MMP-9 release from PMA-induced NCI-H292 cells.
CONCLUSION: The crude ethanolic extract of Z. cassumunar and its active constituent compound D inhibited the cleavage of pro-MMP-9 by HDM. They also inhibited PMA-induced MMP-9 gene and protein synthesis in human airway epithelial cells.