Fermentation Improves Calcium Bioavailability inleaves and Prevents Bone Loss in Calcium-deficient Rats.
Food Sci Nutr. 2020 Jul ;8(7):3692-3703. Epub 2020 May 25. PMID: 32724632
Nowadays, there is an increasing demand of healthier plant calcium supplements.leaves (MOL) are rich in calcium and thus are promising candidates for developing efficient calcium supplements. Here, using fermentation-based approaches, we developed aleaf ferment (MOLF), which contents higher levels of calcium. The therapeutic potential of the MOLF was also examined both in vitro and in vivo. Nine lactic acid bacteria and four yeasts were tested for better fermentation of MOL. Calcium-deficient rats were used for evaluating the therapeutic effects of MOLF. The results of liquid fermentation showed that the mixture ofandelevated the content of MOL calcium most strikingly, with the content of calcium increased nearly 2.4-fold (from 2.08% to 4.90%). The resulting MOLF was then subjected to cell experiments and animal experiments. The results showed that calcium absorption in Caco-2 cells in MOLF group was higher than that in CaClgroup significantly. Interestingly, in calcium-deficient rats, MOLF treatment significantly increased the thickness of cortical bone, rat body weight, wet weight of the femur, and the femur bone density, whereas it decreased osteoclast numbers. These results indicate that microbial fermentation increased calcium bioavailability of MOL, promote the growth and development of calcium-deficient rats, bone calcium deposition, and bone growth; enhance bone strength; reduce bone resorption; and prevent calcium deficiency.