Fermented Extraction of Citrus unshiu Peel Inhibits Viability and Migration of Human Pancreatic Cancers.
J Med Food. 2018 Jan ;21(1):5-12. PMID: 29346059
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most dangerous cancers with high mortality rates. Despite continuous efforts, there has been limited improvement in its prognosis. In this study, we prepared fermented extract of Citrus unshiu peel (fCUP) from the by-product after juice processing and then examined the anticancer effects of fCUP on human pancreatic cancer cells. Treatment with fCUP inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells through induction of caspase-3 cleavage both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with fCUP also blocked the migration of human pancreatic cancer cells through activation of intracellular signaling pathways such as MKK3/6 and P38. In contrast, treatment with fCUP did not inhibit growth and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In addition, we found that fCUP mainly consisted of aboriginal compounds, narirutin and hesperidin, as well as newly generated compounds, naringenin and hesperetin. In silico analysis showed that naringenin and hesperetin were the unique modules related to anticancer effect. Furthermore, fCUP exhibited the anticancer effects in in vivo xenograft models. Collectively, these results suggest that fCUP might have the potential to be developed into an effective anticancer drug for pancreatic cancers without causing adverse side-effects.