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Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

Fermented Garlic Ameliorates Hypercholesterolemia and Inhibits Platelet Activation.

Abstract Source:

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 ;2019:3030967. Epub 2019 Dec 11. PMID: 31885643

Abstract Author(s):

Muhammad Irfan, Minki Kim, Kil-Soo Kim, Tae-Hwan Kim, Sung-Dae Kim, Seung-Bok Hong, Hyun Kyoung Kim, Man Hee Rhee

Article Affiliation:

Muhammad Irfan

Abstract:

Dietary cholesterol augments the lipid profile and induces the production and activation of platelets, leading to the development of atherosclerosis with detrimental effects on cardiovascular health. Ethnomedicine and Mediterranean diets are natural and cost-effective approaches against several ailments including cardiovascular diseases. In addition, fermented foods have attracted interest due to their increased nutrient profile and enhanced bioavailability and efficacy. Garlic is known to reduce cholesterol and inhibit platelet activation. Therefore, we examined whether fermented garlic could effectively ameliorate the effects of hypercholesterolemia and platelet functions in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet and treated with spirulina and fermented and nonfermented preparations of garlic for one month. Platelet aggregation and granule secretion were assessed to evaluate platelet activation. Analysis of the liver and kidney weights and lipid and enzymatic profiles of the serum and whole blood analysis was performed. The expression levels of SREBP-2, ACAT-2, and HMG-CoA were assessed by RT-PCR, while ACAT-1 and ACAT-2 were assessed by real-time PCR, and histological changes in the liver and adipose tissues were analyzed. Both fermented and nonfermented garlic inhibited platelet aggregation and granule secretion; however, fermented garlic exhibited a greater inhibitory effect. In comparison with nonfermented garlic, fermented garlic significantly reduced liver weight and triglyceride concentrations. Fermented garlic also markedly abrogated the detrimental effects of steatosis on liver and adipose tissues. We conclude that fermented garlic significantly improved the lipid profile and modulated platelet functions, thereby inhibiting atherosclerosis- and platelet-related cardiovascular disorders.

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