Fermented Korean Red Ginseng Extract Enriched in Rd and Rg3 Protects against Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease through Regulation of mTORC1.
Nutrients. 2019 Dec 4 ;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 4. PMID: 31817227
The fermentation of Korean red ginseng (RG) increases the bioavailability and efficacy of RG, which has a protective role in various diseases. However, the ginsenoside-specific molecular mechanism of the fermented RG with(CRG) has not been elucidated in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A mouse model of NAFLD was induced by a fast-food diet (FFD) and treated with CRG (100 or 300 mg/kg) for the last 8 weeks. CRG-mediated signaling was assessed in the liver cells isolated from mice. CRG administration significantly reduced the FFD-induced steatosis, liver injury, and inflammation, indicating that CRG confers protective effects against NAFLD. Of note, an extract of CRG contains a significantly increased amount of ginsenosides (Rd and Rg3) after bioconversion compared with that of conventional RG. Moreover, in vitro treatment with Rd or Rg3 produced anti-steatotic effects in primary hepatocytes. Mechanistically, CRG protected palmitate-induced activation of mTORC1 and subsequent inhibition of mitophagy and PPARα signaling. Similar to that noted in hepatocytes, CRG exerted anti-inflammatory activity through mTORC1 inhibition-mediated M2 polarization. In conclusion, CRG inhibits lipid-mediated pathologic activation of mTORC1 in hepatocytes and macrophages, which in turn prevents NAFLD development. Thus, the administration of CRG may be an alternative for the prevention of NAFLD.