Modulatory Effect of Fermented Papaya Extracts on Mammary Gland Hyperplasia Induced by Estrogen and Progestin in Female Rats.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017 ;2017:8235069. Epub 2017 Nov 20. PMID: 29359010
Fermented papaya extracts (FPEs) are obtained by fermentation of papaya by Aspergillus oryzae and yeasts. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of FPEs on mammary gland hyperplasia induced by estrogen and progestogen. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, including a control group, an FPE-alone group, a model group, and three FPE treatment groups (each receiving 30, 15, or 5 ml/kg FPEs). Severe mammary gland hyperplasia was induced upon estradiol benzoate and progestin administration. FPEs could improve the pathological features of the animal model and reduce estrogen levels in the serum. Analysis of oxidant indices revealed that FPEs could increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, decrease malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the mammary glands and serum of the animal models, and decrease the proportion of cells positive for the oxidative DNA damage marker 8-oxo-dG in the mammary glands. Additionally, estradiol benzoate andprogestin altered the levels of serum biochemical compounds such as aspartate transaminase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), and alanine transaminase (ALT), as well as hepatic oxidant indices such as SOD, GSH-Px, MDA, and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG). These indices reverted to normal levels uponoral administration of a high dose of FPEs. Taken together, our results indicate that FPEs can protect the mammary glands and other visceral organs from oxidative damage.