Fermented red ginseng alleviates cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Fermented Red Ginseng Alleviates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppression and 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid-Induced Colitis in Mice by Regulating Macrophage Activation and T Cell Differentiation.
Am J Chin Med. 2018 ;46(8):1879-1897. Epub 2018 Dec 6. PMID: 30518233
A variety of products have been developed with red ginseng (RG, the steamed roots of Panax ginseng Meyer). To clarify the immunomodulating effects of water-extracted RG (wRG), 50% ethanol-extracted RG (eRG), enzyme-treated eRG (ERG) and probiotic-fermented eRG (FRG), we examined their immunopotentiating and immunosuppressive effects in mice with cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunosuppression (CI) or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis (TC). Oral administration of RG in CI mice significantly increased blood IFN-levels. Treatment with RG also increased the tumoricidal effects of CI mouse splenic cytotoxic T (Tc) and NK cells against YAC-1 cells. Treatment with RGs, in particular FRG and wRG, significantly increased Th1 cell differentiation. Treatment with RG except wRG increased Treg cell differentiation. However, wRG alone increased IL-6 and IL-17 expression in the colon of CI mice. Furthermore, RG alleviated colitis in TC mice. FRG most potently suppressed TNBS-induced colon shortening, NF-B activation and TNF-and IL-17 expression and increased IL-10 expression. RGs inhibited TNF-expression and increased IL-10 expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated primary macrophages in vitro while the differentiation of splenic T cells into type 1 T (Th1) and regulatory T (Treg) cells was increased by FRG in vitro. In conclusion, FRG can alleviate immunosuppression and inflammation by inhibiting macrophage activation and regulating Th1 and Treg cell differentiation.