Ferulic acid attenuates oxidative DNA damage and inflammatory responses in microglia induced by benzo(a)pyrene.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Dec ;77:105980. Epub 2019 Nov 4. PMID: 31699670
Over-activation of microglia disrupts the physiological homeostasis of the brain, and induces inflammatory response and other processes which are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, theoretically, suppression of neuroinflammation would slow the progression of neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we investigated the possible protective effects of Ferulic acid (FA) against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-induced microglial activation using BV2 cells as the model system. Exposure of BV2 cells to BaP (10 μM) significantly increased DNA damage and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and cytokines (interleukins-1β and -6). On the other hand, when BaP-treated BV2 cells were further incubated with FA (10, 20, 40, or 80 mg/mL) for another 24 h, a significant reduction in BaP-induced DNA damage and the release of multiple pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic factors (including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, NO, and ROS) was observed in a dose-dependent manner. Further study revealed that the microglial NOD-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) signaling pathway was involved in the protective effect of FA. Taken together, these results suggested that FA suppressed BaP-induced toxicity in microglia, and thus mayexert neuroprotective effects by inhibiting microglia-mediated pro-inflammatory response.