Ferulic acid isolated from propolis inhibits porcine parvovirus replication potentially through Bid-mediate apoptosis.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2020 Mar 12 ;83:106379. Epub 2020 Mar 12. PMID: 32172206
Propolis from honeybee hives, which is a traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used in veterinary clinics. Many compounds have been identified and isolated from propolis. Ferulic acid (FA), one of the propolis components, previous studies have proven that it has antiviral effects. To study the mechanism of FA antiviral effects, experiments such as immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting were introduced. In porcine kidney (PK-15) cells, PPV infection induced the expression of the proapoptotic genes Bid, Bad, Bim and Bak, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, promoted mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptotic signaling and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the infected PK-15 cells had increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. FA treatment, however, reversed these effects and increased cell viability. FA treatment also significantly decreased the PPV-induced expression of Bid, Cyt-c and Apaf-1, suggesting that ROS were involved in the activation of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. This in vitro study showed that the antiviral activity of FA was probably associated with inhibiting the replication of PPV by blocking proapoptotic factors such as Bid, Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, and attenuating the mitochondria-mediated response by inhibiting the activation of the Bid-related signaling pathway. Pharmacological inhibitors inhibited PPV-induced apoptosis by blocking Bid, and also suppressed the expression of Caspase family proteins in ppv-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggested that PPV induced PK-15 cell apoptosis via activation of Bid and Bid-related signaling pathways and that the mitochondria act as the mediators of these pathways. FA effectively and extensively attenuated this PPV action, and thus is a potential antiviral agent against PPV.