Fiestin has potential as a therapeutic agent against hepatocellular carcinoma. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Fisetin, a phytopolyphenol, targets apoptotic and necroptotic cell death in HepG2 cells.
Biofactors. 2019 Oct 21. Epub 2019 Oct 21. PMID: 31634424
Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), a bioactive dietary flavonoid, intrigued scientists for its anticancer potential against various cancer types. We investigated the fisetin-induced inhibition of growth and survival of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Fisetin decreased cell viability and proliferation of HepG2 cells as revealed from MTT and clonogenicity assays. Cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase was observed. Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining followed by flow cytometry revealed that fisetin induced both apoptosis and necroptosis in HepG2 cells. Apoptotic cells were significantly increased on fisetin treatment as observed in morphological evaluations and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and Acridine orange staining. Flow cytometry, fluorescence imaging, and 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate analyses showed an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation on fisetin treatment. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine inhibited ROS production and also rescued mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. The underlying mechanisms of apoptosis and necroptosis were determined by analysis of their respective signaling molecules using qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Fisetin showed a marked increase in the expression of TNFα and IKκB with a decrease in NF-κB, pNF-κB and pIKκB expression. Fisetin reduced the expression of Bcl2, and elevated levels of Bax, caspase-3, and PARP and thus induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. zVAD suppressed the fisetin-induced expression of caspase-8, RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL as opposed tofisetin treatment. Nec-1 + fisetin could not completely block necroptosis, which warrants further investigation. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the fisetin exhibited anti-proliferative effects on HepG2 cells through apoptosis and necroptosis via multiple signaling pathways. Fiestin has potential as a therapeutic agent against hepatocellular carcinoma.