Synergistic effects of Ficus Carica extract and extra virgin olive oil against oxidative injury, cytokine liberation, and inflammation mediated by 5-Fluorouracil in cardiac and renal tissues of male albino rats.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Sep 18. Epub 2020 Sep 18. PMID: 32946057
Mona M Elghareeb
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), a chemotherapeutic drug, has adverse effects on heart and kidney functions. Ficus Carica (fig) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) are natural sources which have antioxidant effects. This study investigated the synergistic effects of fig extract and EVOO against cardiac and renal damage induced by 5-FU. Forty rats were equally divided into five groups and treated with physiological saline (control), five intravenous injections of 5-FU (40 mg/kg b.w) (5-FU), fig (1 g/kg b.w/day, orally) with 5-FU (Fig/5-FU), EVOO (7 g/kg b.w/day, orally) with 5-FU (EVOO/5-FU), combined treatment of fig and EVOO with five 5-FU injections (Fig/EVOO/5-FU). After 30 days, blood and tissue samples (Heart and kidney) were collected to be used in the examinations. 5-FU significantly increased serum creatine kinase activity, renal biomarkers, cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β as well as cardiac and renal lipid peroxides (malondialdehyde). Meanwhile, serum levels of immunoglobulins, interleukins (IL-10, IL-12), and antioxidants of heart and kidney tissues were significantly decreased in 5-FU group. It also downregulated cardiac and renal Bcl2, andupregulated cardiac troponin and renin gene expressions. As well, histological alterations clarified that 5-FU induced cardiac cell damage, distorted renal corpuscles and tubules, inflammatory cell infiltrations, and severe congestion and hemorrhage in the blood vessels. The treatment with fig and olive oil, especially the combined treatment, modulated the toxic effect of 5-FU on the heart and kidney. Our results revealed that fig extract and EVOO have a powerful antioxidant and many protective effects against cardiac and renal toxicity induced by 5-FU, especially when using fig and EVOO together as a combined treatment.