Antihypertensive effect of the methanolic extract from Eruca sativa Mill., (Brassicaceae) in rats: Muscarinic receptor-linked vasorelaxant and cardiotonic effects.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Oct 5 ;224:409-420. Epub 2018 Jun 18. PMID: 29913298
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eruca sativa Mill., (Brassicaceae) is a popular remedy for the treatment of hypertension in Pakistan. However, direct effect of the extract and its fractions on blood pressure and vascular tone are unknown.
AIM OF THE STUDY: This investigation was aimed to explore the pharmacological base for the traditional use of E. sativa in hypertension.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In-vivo blood pressure study was carried out using normotensive and high salt-induced hypertensive rats under anaesthesia. The cardiovascular mechanisms were explored using rat aorta and atria in-vitro. Preliminary phytochemical analysis, spectrophotometric detection of total phenols, flavonoids and HPLC analysis of crude extract were performed using quercetin and erucin as marker compounds.
RESULTS: Intravenous injection of crude extract induced a fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in both normotensive (max fall: 41.79 ± 1.55% mmHg) and hypertensive (max fall: 58.25 ± 0.91% mmHg) rats. Atropine (1 mg/kg) pretreatment attenuated this effect significantly (p < 0.001), suggesting the involvement of muscarinic receptor in its antihypertensive effect. Fractions also induced atropine-sensitive antihypertensive effect. Similarly, oral administration of crude and aqueous extracts resulted a fall in MAP in the hypertensive rats. In isolated rat aortic rings from normotensive rats, crude extract and fractions induced an endothelium-dependent relaxation. This relaxation was partially inhibited withNAME and atropine pretreatment and with denudation of aortic rings, indicating involvement of muscarinic receptor-linked nitric oxide (NO). In aorta from the hypertensive rats, crude extract and fractions induced endothelium-independent relaxation. This relaxation was not affected by pretreatment withNAME or atropine. Crude extract and fractions also suppressed phenylephrine contractions in Cafree/EGTA medium. In isolated rat atrial preparations, crude extract and fractions induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects with a positive inotropic effect by the n-hexane fraction, which were not affected with atropine pretreatment. Phytochemical screening and spectrophotometric analysis indicated the presence of phenols and flavonoids, whereas HPLC analysis of crude extract revealed the presence of quercetin (flavonoid) and erucin (isothiocyanate).
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that E. sativa is an antihypertensive remedy which is mainly due to its vasodilatory and partly cardiac effects. Muscarinic receptors-linked NO release and dual inhibitory effect on Cainflux and release underlie the vasodilation. This finding provides pharmacological base to the traditional use of E. sativa in hypertension. The presence of quercetin and erucin further support this finding.