Studies on the protective effect of dietary fish oil on uranyl-nitrate-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage in rat kidney.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009 Nov 18. Epub 2009 Nov 18. PMID: 19931439
Human and animal exposure demonstrates that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, attempts to reduce it were not found suitable for clinical use. Dietary fish oil (FO) enriched in omega-3 fatty acids reduces the severity of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Present study investigates the protective effect of FO on uranyl nitrate (UN)-induced renal damage. Rats prefed with experimental diets for 15 days, given single nephrotoxic dose of UN (0.5mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally. After 5d of UN treatment, serum/urine parameters, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane (BBM), oxidative stress and phosphate transport were analyzed in rat kidney. UN nephrotoxicity was characterized by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. UN increased the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and NADP-malic enzyme whereas decreased malate, isocitrate and glucose-6-phophate dehydrogenases; glucose-6-phophatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase and BBM enzyme activities. UN caused oxidant/antioxidant imbalances as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation, activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity. Feeding FO alone increased activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism, BBM, oxidative stress and Pi transport. UN-elicited alterations were prevented by FO feeding. However, corn oil had no such effects and was not similarly effective. In conclusion, FO appears to protect against UN-induced nephrotoxicity by improving energy metabolism and antioxidant defense mechanism.