Flavonoids from the peels of Citrus unshiu Markov. and their inhibitory effects on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through the downregulation of c-Fos signaling in vitro.
Bioorg Chem. 2021 Feb ;107:104613. Epub 2021 Jan 5. PMID: 33485103
Thi Oanh Vu
Phytochemical investigation of Citrus unshiu peels led to the isolation of eight new flavonols (7-9, 11-15) and sixteen known compounds (1-6, 10, 16-24). Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic analysis (1D, 2D NMR, and HR-MS). Besides, all isolated compounds (1-24) were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on receptor activator of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in BMMs. Among them, dimethylmikanin (1), quercetogetin (2), 3,3',4',5,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (3), 3-methoxynobiletin (4) showed a significant inhibitory effect on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation at a concentration of 10 μM. Moreover, 3-methoxynobiletin (4) suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the number of osteoclasts and osteoclast actin-ring formation in a dose-dependent manner without causing any cytotoxic effects on BMMs. At the molecular level, 3-methoxynobiletin (4) inhibited RANKL-induced c-Fos expression and subsequently NFATc1 activation, as well as the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker genes c-Src and CtsK. These findings suggested that 3-methoxynobiletin (4) attenuated osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting RANKL-mediated c-Fos signaling and that it may havetherapeutic potential for treating or preventing bone resorption-related diseases, such as osteoporosis.