Folic acid can protect cerebellum against homocysteine-mediated neurotoxicity. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Folic Acid Protects Rat Cerebellum Against Oxidative Damage Caused by Homocysteine: the Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3 Apoptotic Genes.
Neurotox Res. 2019 Nov 13. Epub 2019 Nov 13. PMID: 31721048
There is evidence that oxidative stress involves in homocysteine-induced pathogenesis. Considering the antioxidative properties of folic acid and its involvement as a cofactor for methionine synthase (MS) in the homocysteine-methionine cycle, the aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism associated with homocysteine-induced toxicity and its prevention with folic acid supplementation. Male rat pups were divided into four groups including control, homocysteine (Hcy), Hcy + folic acid and folic acid groups. The Hcy group received Hcy 0.3-0.6μmol/g body weight, while Hcy + folic acid group received folic acid orally as 0.011 μmol/g body weight along with Hcy on a postnatal day (PD) 4 until 25. The reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG) levels, GSH/GSSG ratio, protein carbonyl content, cystathionine β synthase (CBS), and MS activities in the cerebellum were measured 25 days after birth. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), marker of lipid peroxidation were measured. Also, Bcl2, Bax, and caspase-3 expression levels were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Furthermore, caspase-3 protein level assay was performed by the ELISA test. Results indicated that Hcy administration could promote both lipid and protein oxidation, which was associated with increased amounts of caspase-3 mRNA and protein levels and Bax mRNA expression level in this group. Cerebellar MS, CBS enzyme activity, GSH, GSSG, and GSH/GSH ratio did not change following Hcy administration. Folic acid significantly reduced MDA level, protein carbonyl content, Bax, the caspase-3 mRNA, and protein expression levels in the cerebellum of Hcy-treated group. Moreover, cerebellar MS, CBS enzyme activity, GSH, and GSH/GSH ratio increased following folic acidtreatment. We conclude that Hcy might cause apoptosis in the cerebellum. We suggest that folic acid, in addition of having antioxidant properties, can protect cerebellum against homocysteine-mediated neurotoxicity via modulating the expression of proteins that are contributed in regulation of apoptosis in the rat's cerebellum.