Formononetin Upregulates Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling and Prevents Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Kidney Injury in Methotrexate-Induced Rats.
Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Sep 26 ;8(10). Epub 2019 Sep 26. PMID: 31561418
Saleem H Aladaileh
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of methotrexate (MTX). This study explored the protective effect of the isoflavone formononetin (FN) against MTX nephrotoxicity with an emphasis on oxidative stress, inflammation, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2/heme oxygenase 1 (Nrf2/HO-1) signaling. Rats received FN (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) for 10 days and a single dose of MTX on day 7. MTX induced kidney injury was characterized by increased serum creatinine and urea, kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), and several histological alterations. FN ameliorated kidney function and inhibited the renal tissue injury induced by MTX. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide, and 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine were increased, whereas antioxidant defenses were diminished in the kidney of MTX-administered rats. In addition, MTX upregulated renal iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3, and decreased Bcl-2, Nrf2, and HO-1. FN suppressed oxidative stress, LPO, DNA damage, iNOS, COX-2, proinflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis, and boosted Bcl-2, antioxidants, and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in MTX-administered rats. In conclusion, FN prevents MTX-induced AKI by activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling and attenuates oxidative damage and inflammation. Thus, FN may represent an effective adjuvant that can prevent MTX nephrotoxicity, pending further mechanistic studies.