Formulation and characterization of EGCG for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Formulation and characterization of EGCG for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer.
Int J Mol Med. 2017 Jun 14. Epub 2017 Jun 14. PMID: 28627636
In the United States, the annual incidence of bladder cancer is approximately 70,000 new cases, with a mortality rate of approximately 15,000/year. The most common subtype (70%) of bladder cancer is superficial, namely hte non-muscle invasive disease form limited to the urothelium. The rate of progression and recurrence is up to 40 and 70%, respectively. Urothelial cellcarcinoma of the bladder is typically treated with transurethral resection. The cancerous cells can float onto the adjacent epithelium, increasing the risk of recurrence. The standard of care is to offer adjuvant intravesical agents to reduce the risk of progression and recurrence. Current intravesical treatments are costly and are associated with special biohazard handling protocols. Patients are treated with intravesical therapy with bacillus Calmetter‑Guerin (BCG) bacterium, or mitomycin C (MMC) following resection, both of which can cause moderate to severe side-effects which are rarely life-threatening. We previously examined the efficacy of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in comparison with MMC to prevent tumor cell implantation/growth in an animal model of superficial bladder cancer. Experiments revile that EGCG is slightly more effective than MMC at decreasing tumor cellimplantation and consequent cancer growth in a bladder. This treatment requires the stringent sterile requirement of EGCG. EGCG can be unstable when sterilized at high temperatures. Thus, we evaluated two low temperature sterilization methods, such as ionizing radiation or the filtration method followed by freeze-drying. Both methods ensure the sterility of the sample; however, infrared and HPLC analysis revealed a slightly better stability of irradiated EGCG over the filtration method. The concentration of stable free radicals following irradiation was low, which are unlikely to exert any damaging effects to EGCG. Therefore, we consider that radiation will be the preferred method of EGCG sterilization, and that this may prove useful for the effective use of EGCG in the treatment of bladder cancer.