Biological indicators in response to radiofrequency/microwave exposure.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2012 Sep ;63(3):407-16. PMID: 23152390
Ana Marija Marjanović
Over the years, due to rapid technological progress, radiation from man-made sources exceeded that of natural origin. There is a general concern regarding a growing number of appliances that use radiofrequency/ microwave (RF/MW) radiation with particular emphasis on mobile communication systems. Since nonthermal biological effects and mechanisms of RF/MW radiation are still uncertain, laboratory studies on animal models, tissues, cells, and cell free system are of extraordinary importance in bioelectromagnetic research. We believe that such investigations play a supporting role in public risk assessment. Cellular systems with the potential for a clear response to RF/MW exposures should be used in those studies. It is known that organism is a complex electrochemical system where processes of oxidation and reduction regularly occur. One of the plausible mechanisms is connected with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Depending on concentration, ROS can have both beneficial and deleterious effects. Positive effects are connected with cell signalling, defence against infectious agents, and proliferative cell ability. On the other hand, excessive production, which overloads antioxidant defence mechanism, leads to cellular damage with serious potential for disease development. ROS concentration increase within the cell caused by RF/MW radiation seems to be a biologically relevant hypothesis to give clear insight into the RF/MW action at non-thermal level of radiation. In order to better understand the exact mechanism of action and its consequences, further research is needed in the field. We would like to present current knowledge on possible biological mechanisms of RF/MW actions.