Fructo-oligosaccharides from Morinda officinalis remodeled gut microbiota and alleviated depression features in a stress rat model.
Phytomedicine. 2019 Dec 23 ;67:153157. Epub 2019 Dec 23. PMID: 31896054
BACKGROUND: Inulin-type fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs) purified from Morinda officinalis How., an effective oral antidepressant for mild to moderate depression, have a largely unknown efficacy and poor bioavailability.
PURPOSE: Therefore, the microbiota-gut-brain axis was used to investigate the antidepressive properties of FOSs at the interface of the gut microbiota (GM).
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: FOSs was introduced via intragastric gavage to rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and the antidepressive effects were investigated through behavioral tests, intestinal morphology and corticosterone levels. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from feces, and the GM was profiled for using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR analysis, partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.
RESULTS: It was observed that FOSs alleviated depression-like behaviors and repaired intestinal epithelia damages. FOSs treatment lowered corticosterone levels in the plasma and urine of the model rats. Moreover, the GM compositions of normal and model rats were distantly clustered and were mainly related to the disappearance of beneficial bacteria (e.g., Acinetobacter, Barnesiella, Coprococcus, Dialister, Lactobacillus, and Paenibacillus) and appearance of depression-associated bacteria (e.g., Anaerostipes, Oscillibacter, Proteobacteria, and Streptococcus) in depressive rats. Interestingly, the dysbiosis in depressive rats' gut was reinstated with FOSs treatments. Notably, FOSs promoted the abundance of the bacterial phylum Cyanobacteria, a group of bacteria known for the secretion of pharmacologically important metabolites, such as HS, that exhibit antidepressant-like properties. Apparently, FOSs-induced modulation of GM was more antidepressive compared to a component of FOSs, degrees of polymerization (DP) 5, and fluoxetine, the standard antidepressant drug.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study implied that antidepressant efficacy of FOSs was inseparable from and strongly associated with the modulation of the host' s GM.