Fucoidan ameliorates acute and sub-chronic in vivo toxicity of the fungicide cholorothalonil in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia).
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2021 Mar 24 ;245:109035. Epub 2021 Mar 24. PMID: 33774206
Hebatallah A Mahgoub
Fucoidans are sulfated glycans from marine algae that have both anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties. Chlorothalonil is a fungicide and insecticide commonly used in agriculture. Chlorothalonil is relatively toxic to fish and can potentially affect the aquaculture practices. In this study, we determined whether fucoidan administration would offer any protection from acute and subchronic toxicity of chlorothalonil on Nile tilapia. First, we tested the effect of chlorothalonil (20 to 140 μg/L, water-applied) on Nile tilapia in an acute exposure (six days). Survival analysis was performed, together with assessment of histopathology, oxidative stress (i.e., antioxidant status, hydrogen peroxide levels, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels) and immunohistochemistry to measure indicators of hepatic damage (i.e., caspase 3, p53, mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM), and glutathione peroxidase). Chlorothalonil induced mild to severe histopathological alterations that were dose-dependent in various tissues of Nile tilapia. Chlorothalonil also induced oxidative stress as indicated by elevated biochemical markers. The highest recorded mortalities were associated with p53 expression. Additional feeding experiments were conducted with fucoidan (8 g/kg diet), following acute (40 μg/L for seven days) and sub-chronic (20 μg/L for six weeks) chlorothalonil applicationin Nile tilapia. Many of these same biochemical biomarkers of stress, oxidative damage response, and tissue pathology (evidence for hepatic neoplasm) were ameliorated by fucoidan, suggesting a protective effect of the compound. Agrochemicals are ubiquitous on a global scale, and the use of fucoidanas a feed additive may be beneficial for protecting aquatic animal health and aquaculture species from the impacts of chemical run-off.