Galacto-oligosaccharides ameliorate dysbiotic Bifidobacteriaceae decline in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Benef Microbes. 2017 Oct 13 ;8(5):705-716. Epub 2017 Sep 8. PMID: 28884590
Gut microbiota affects the host's metabolism, and it is suggested that there are differences in gut microbiota composition between patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy individuals. Additionally, dysbiosis may increase the concentration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), causing metabolic endotoxemia, which induces impaired glucose tolerance. Several studies have reported relationships between metabolic diseases and the gut microbiota; and prebiotics, such as oligosaccharides, are commonly consumed to regulate gut microbiotas in healthy individuals. Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are a major prebiotic, which specifically increase Bifidobacteriaceae abundance. Recent studies have reported that Bifidobacteriaceae improved metabolic endotoxemia or impaired glucose tolerance. However, there are few studies reporting the effects of GOS on patients with type 2 diabetes. In the current study, we compared clinical parameters, faecal gut microbiota, their associated metabolic products and their components such as LPS, and LPS-binding protein (LBP) produced by the host, between patients with diabetes and healthy controls. We then assessed the effects of GOS on glycaemic control, and gut microbiotas and metabolites in patients with type 2 diabetes in a double-blind controlled manner. LBP levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes than those of healthy subjects, which was consistent with previous reports. The abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae and the diversity of intestinal microbiota were significantly lower in patients with diabetes than in healthy subjects. Interestingly, Bifidobacteriaceae was markedly restored in patients with diabetes after consumption of GOS, whereas LBP and glucose tolerance did not improve during this short-term trial period. In the present study, we demonstrated that GOS can ameliorate dysbiosis in patients with diabetes, and continuous intake of GOS may be a promising method for managing type 2 diabetes.