Galangin suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of human glioblastoma cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Galangin (GLN) Suppresses Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion of Human Glioblastoma Cells by Targeting Skp2-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT).
Onco Targets Ther. 2020 ;13:9235-9244. Epub 2020 Sep 17. PMID: 32982310
Background: Galangin (GLN), a pure natural flavonoid compound found in plants, has been shown to exert anti-cancer effects against multiple cancer types, including glioma. However, its underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) performs an important function in the genesis and development of cancer. Skp2, a pivotal component of SCFE3 ubiquitin ligase, has been shown to function as an oncogene in GBM invasion that contributes to the EMT process. Thus, we explored whether GLN inhibited Skp2-mediated EMT and the mechanism underlying the Skp2 degradation pathway.
Methods: CCK-8 assay, wound healing assay and transwell assay were used to examine cell proliferation, migration, and invasion after treatment with or without GLN. RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis were performed to evaluate mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Co-immunoprecipitation was conducted to detect ubiquitinated Skp2 levels in vitro and in vivo after GLN treatment. Bioluminescence imaging was performed to examine the intracranial tumor size of U87 xenograft mice. Microscale thermophoresis (MST) experiment was used to detect interactions between Skp2 and GLN.
Results: GLN suppressed GBM cell growth, migration, and invasion, and also downregulated the expression of Skp2 and mesenchymal markers (Zeb1, N-cadherin, snail, vimentin) in vitro. Moreover, the overexpression of Skp2 in GBM cells decreased the effect of GLN on EMT. Furthermore, we demonstrated that GLN degraded skp2 protein through the ubiquitination proteasome pathway and directly interacted with skp2 protein, as shown through the MST assay.
Conclusion: This study is the first to identify Skp2 as a novel target of GLN for the treatment of GBM and report of Skp2 protein degradation in a ubiquitination proteasome pathway. Results from our study indicated the potential of GLN for the treatment of GBM through ubiquitin-mediated degradation of Skp2.