Ganoderma lucidum spore ethanol extract attenuates atherosclerosis. - GreenMedInfo Summary
spore ethanol extract attenuates atherosclerosis by regulating lipid metabolism via upregulation of liver X receptor alpha.
Pharm Biol. 2020 Dec ;58(1):760-770. PMID: 32780606
CONTEXT: (Leyss.ex Fr.) Karst (Ganodermataceae) is a fungus that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine.
OBJECTIVE: This is the first investigation of the lipid-lowering and anti-atherosclerotic effects ofspore ethanol extract (EEG) in hyperlipidemic rabbits.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four Japanese rabbits were randomly divided into six groups ( = 9): control, model, atorvastatin and three EEG groups (6, 24 and 96 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Control group was administered a normal diet and other groups were administered a high-fat diet to induce hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis for 14 weeks. During this time, lipid profiles were recorded;lipid testing and histopathological examination of aorta and liver were conducted. LXRα and its downstream genes expression in the liver and small intestine were examined. The effect of EEG on macrophage cholesterol efflux and ABCA1/G1 expression was observed under silenced LXRα expression.
RESULTS: EEG reduced serum cholesterol (20.33 ± 3.62 mmol/L vs 34.56 ± 8.27 mmol/L for the model group) and LDL-C, reduced the area of arterial plaques (24.8 ± 10% vs 53.9 ± 15.2% for the model group) and Intima/Medium thickness ratio, increased faecal bile acid content, upregulated LXRα, CYP7A1, ABCA1/G1, ABCG5/G8 expression in the liver, small intestine and macrophages. After silencing LXRα in macrophages, the ability of EEG to promote cholesterol efflux was inhibited.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: EEG exert lipid-lowering and anti-atherosclerotic effects via upregulating expression of LXRα and downstream genes associated with reverse cholesterol transport and metabolism. However, whether PPARα/γ are involved in the up-regulation of LXR expression by EEG remains to be elucidated.