The Gastroprotective Effect of Small Molecule Oligopeptides Isolated from Walnut (L.) against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats.
Nutrients. 2020 Apr 18 ;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 18. PMID: 32325708
The study investigated the protective effect of walnut oligopeptides (WOPs) against ethanol-induced gastric injury using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats were randomly divided into seven groups based on body weight (10/group), normal group, ethanol group, whey protein group (220 mg/kg body weight), omeprazole group (20 mg/kg body weight), and three WOPs groups (220, 440, 880 mg/kg body weight). After 30 days of treatment with WOPs, rats were given 5 ml/kg absolute ethanol by gavage to induce gastric mucosal injury. Gastric ulcer index (GUI) were determined and the following measured; gastric content pH, gastric mucin, endogenous pepsinogens (PG), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress indicators, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins were measured to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of WOPs. The results showed that the administration with WOPs markedly mitigated the hemorrhagic gastric lesions caused by ethanol in rats, and decreased the GUI, the gastric content pH, PG1, PG2, and NO levels, enhanced mucin and PGE2. Also, WOPs repressed gastric inflammation through the reduction of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and increase IL-10 levels, and revealed antioxidant properties with the enhancement of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and catalase activity, while reduction of malondialdehyde. Moreover, WOPs treatment significantly down-regulated Bax, caspase-3 and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) expression, while up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and inhibitor kappa Bα (IκBα) protein. These results indicated that WOPs have protective effects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats through anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, and anti-apoptosis mechanisms.