Genipin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced persistent changes of emotional behaviors and neural activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the central amygdala nucleus.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2014 Oct 15 ;741:1-7. Epub 2014 Jul 30. PMID: 25084220
Sickness behavior is a series of behavioral and psychological changes that develop in inflammatory disease, including infections and cancers. Administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces sickness behavior in rodents. Genipin, an aglycon derived from an iridoid glycoside geniposide extracted from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides, has anti-inflammatory and antidepressant activities. However, the effects of genipin on inflammation-induced changes in emotional behaviors are unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of genipin on LPS-induced inflammation in BV-2 cells and sickness behavior in mice. Pretreatment with genipin inhibited LPS-induced increases in NO production and reduced the mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes (iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β and IL-6) in BV-2 cells. Oral administration of genipin ameliorated LPS-induced depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test and social behavior deficits 24h after LPS administration in mice. LPS-induced expression of mRNAs for inflammation-related genes and the number of c-fos immunopositivecells decreased in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), suggesting that genipin attenuates LPS-induced changes of emotional behaviors through inhibition of neural activation and inflammatory responses in the PVN and CeA. These novel pharmacological effects of genipin may be useful for treatment of patients with sickness behavior.