Genipin induces cell death via intrinsic apoptosis pathways in human glioblastoma cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Genipin induces cell death via intrinsic apoptosis pathways in human glioblastoma cells.
J Cell Biochem. 2018 Aug 30. Epub 2018 Aug 30. PMID: 30160798
Genipin, a compound derived from Gardenis jasminoides Ellis fruits, was demonstrated to be the specific uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) inhibitor. UCP2 is a mitochondrial carrier protein that creates proton leaks across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thus uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. Several studies revealed that UCP2 is broadly over-expressed in leukemia, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate, testicular, and bladder cancers. However, the effect of genipin still needs to be elucidated in neurological malignancies. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of genipin in U87MG and A172 cell lines. The anticancer effect of genipin on these cell lines was measured by microculture tetrazoliumtest (MTT), Trypan blue exclusion, and colony formation assays, in the presence of various concentrations of genipin at different time intervals. We assessed apoptosis and measure intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by flow cytometry. Expression of UCP2 and some of the genes involved in apoptosis was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results of the MTT assay showed that genipin moderately reduced metabolic activity of both cell lines in dose- and time-dependent manner. Result of Trypan blue exclusion test indicated that the viable cell count decreased in the treated group in a concentration-dependent manner. Genipin also significantly decreased colony formation ability of these cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Result of morphological changes showed that there were significant differences in cell number and morphology in treated groups as compared with the untreated groups. Flow cytometric analysis of U87MG and A172 cells with annexin V/propidium iodide staining, 48 hours after treatment with genipin, displays 22.4% and 26.1% apoptotic population, respectively, in treated cells, in comparison to 7.42% and 9.31% apoptotic cells of untreated cells. After treatment, UCP2 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL) genes are downregulated, and BCLassociated X protein, BCLantagonist/killer, BCLinteracting killer, and Cytochrome c genes are upregulated. Genipin treatment increased mitochondrial ROS levels and also induced apoptosis through caspase-3 upregulation. In conclusion, the antiproliferative effects of genipin on the growth of both glioblastoma cell lines have been shown in all of these assays, and genipin profoundly induced apoptosis in both cell lines via the UCP2-related mitochondrial pathway through the induction of intracellular ROS.