Ginkgo biloba extract increases neurite outgrowth and activates the Akt/mTOR pathway. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Ginkgo biloba extract increases neurite outgrowth and activates the Akt/mTOR pathway.
PLoS One. 2019 ;14(12):e0225761. Epub 2019 Dec 2. PMID: 31790465
BACKGROUND: Standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has demonstrated efficacy in the cognitive functional neuropsychiatric symptoms of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). With regard to its underlying molecular mode of action, first evidence was provided that GBE was able to modulate neuronal outgrowth in vitro, but the mechanisms underlying GBE effects on neuroplasticity remain unclear.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the effect of GBE on neurite outgrowth using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in a 2D and 3D surface culture. The effects of the GBE LI1370 on neuroplasticity and neurite outgrowth were compared to those of nerve growth factor (NGF, 50 ng/ml) which was used as a positive control. We evaluated several parameters of neurite outgrowth such as the neurite number, total neurite length and extend of branching. Our findings showed that GBE (10 and 100μg/ml) significantly increased neurite outgrowth in the 2D as well as 3D culture model after 3 days of treatment with a comparable effect than that NGF. The use of the 3D cell culture allowed us to better reproduce the in vivo neuronal microenvironment for the evaluation the neurite formation afterGBE treatment. In addition, we assessed the effects of GBE on the Akt/mTOR pathway, which is known to promote neuroplasticity induced by nerve growth factors. We showed that GBE treatment induced an increase of phosphorylated IGF1R (Tyr1135/Tyr1136), Akt (Ser473), TSC2 (Ser939), mTOR (Ser2448), PTEN (Ser380) and GSK3β (Ser9).
CONCLUSION: Together, these findings indicate that GBE promotes neurite growth and activates the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway suggesting that this plant extract supports neuronal plasticity.