Ginkgo biloba may contribute to restoring olfactory loss. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Effect of ginkgo biloba and dexamethasone in the treatment of 3-methylindole-induced anosmia mouse model.
Am J Rhinol. 2008 May-Jun;22(3):292-6. PMID: 18588762
BACKGROUND: Olfactory loss is a challenging disease. Although glucocorticoid is sometimes used for the treatment of anosmia, it has been reported that it potentiated neural damage in the early phase of treatment. This study is designed to identify the effect of ginkgo biloba, an antioxidant that acts as a free radical scavenger, in the treatment of olfactory injury aggravated by dexamethasone. METHODS: Anosmia mouse model was induced by i.p. injection of 3-methylindole (3-MI). Twenty-five mice were divided into one control group without anosmia and four anosmia treatment groups (given treatments of dexamethasone and/or ginkgo biloba). The effects of treatment were evaluated by behavioral test, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry 2 weeks after 3-MI injection. RESULTS: Induction of anosmia was confirmed by behavioral tests. The thickness and cell number of olfactory neuroepithelium were decreased more significantly in the dexamethasone treatment group than in the combination treatment group. The expression of olfactory marker protein (OMP) in olfactory epithelium was more decreased also in the dexamethasone treatment group than in the combination treatment group. The expression of OMP was decreased significantly in the olfactory bulbs of anosmia groups but there were no differences between the anosmia treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone treatment was associated with further deterioration of olfactory injury by 3-MI and it was recovered by combination treatment of dexamethasone and ginkgo biloba. The antioxidant effect of ginkgo biloba might play a role in restoration of olfactory loss and it was effective only when oxidative stress is maximized by dexamethasone.