Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Activated PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 Signaling Pathway is Involved in the Ameliorative Effects of Ginseng Polysaccharides against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Mice.
ACS Omega. 2021 Apr 6 ;6(13):8958-8966. Epub 2021 Mar 24. PMID: 33842766
Although previous studies have reported that saponins (ginsenosides, the major active and most representative ingredients inC.A. Meyer) exerted a good ameliorative effect on cisplatin (CP)-induced acute kidney injury in animal models, little attention has been paid to a large number of polysaccharides isolated and purified from ginseng. This work aimed to investigate the protective effect and the possible molecular mechanism of ginseng polysaccharide (WGP) on CP-induced kidney toxicology in mice. The results from biomarker analysis including serum creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) confirmed the protective effect of WGP at 200 and 400 mg/kg on CP-induced renal-toxicology. We found that WGP reduces the apoptosis of kidney cells by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by CP, which is manifested by increased phosphorylation of PERK. In addition, the apoptosis-associated with caspase 3 activation in renal cells induced by CP was inhibited after administration of WGP, and the phosphorylation levels of PI3K and AKT were also reduced significantly. We also demonstrated that after exposure to CP, the unfolded protein response signaling pathway PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 axis was significantly activated, manifested by increased phosphorylation of eIF2α and increased expression of ATF4 and CHOP. Interestingly, the WGP administration improves this situation. Furthermore, the supplement of WGP inhibited the overexpression of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κBp65) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) caused by CP exposure. In short, for the first time, our findings indicated that WGP could effectively prevent CP-induced ER stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in renal cells, in part, by regulating the PI3K/AKT and PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signaling pathways.