Ginsenoside Rb1 has beneficial effects on oxidative stress injury in rat spinal cords. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on oxidative stress injury in rat spinal cords by regulating the eNOS/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.
Exp Ther Med. 2018 Aug ;16(2):1079-1086. Epub 2018 Jun 12. PMID: 30116359
The present study aimed to investigate whether ginsenoside Rb1 (G-Rb1) attenuates spinal cord injury-associated oxidative stress in rats by regulating the endothelial nitric oxide synthase eNOS/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase (HO)-1 signaling pathway. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into the sham operation group (S group), spinal cord injury group (SCI group), G-Rb1 treatment group (G-Rb1 group) and SCI+G-Rb1+Inhibitor L-name group (L-name group). The posterior limb function was evaluated via the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scoring method. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) in serum were measured by ELISA. The pathological changes in the spinal cord were observed by H&E staining. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were used to detect eNOS, phosphorylated (p)-eNOS, heat shock protein (HSP)90, Nrf2 and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (Nqo1) at the mRNA and protein level. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Nrf2 and p-eNOS. Compared with the S group, the scores of spinal cord function in the SCI group were significantly lower, and the levels of MDA were significantly increased, while the levels of SOD, CAT and GSH protein in spinal cord were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The spinal cord tissue exhibited hemorrhage, neuronal degeneration/necrosis, as well as mononuclear cell and lymphocyte infiltration. The eNOS, HSP90, Nrf2, Nqo1 and HO-1 mRNA levels were decreased (P<0.05). Compared with those in the SCI group, the spinal cord function score in the G-Rb1 group were significantly higher and the serum MDA content was significantly decreased, while the activity of SOD, CAT and GSH was significantly increased (P<0.05). The degeneration/necrosis of spinal cord neurons was attenuated, inflammatory cell infiltration was significantly reduced and the levels of eNOS, HSP90, Nrf2, Nqo1 and HO-1 were significantly upregulated (P<0.05). In the group that was administered the eNOS inhibitor L-name, the levels of eNOS, HSP90, Nrf2, Nqo1 and HO-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, G-Rb1 attenuates oxidative stress in injured spinal cords. The mechanism may at least in part involve the eNOS/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.