[Therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action of ginsenoside Rg1 in treating acute hepatic failure in mice].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2017 Mar 20 ;25(3):217-222. PMID: 28482410
To examine the regulatory effect of ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1) on endoplasmic reticulum stress and its effect on hepatocellular apoptosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver failure (ALF).Forty healthy, adult male C57/BL mice were randomly divided into normal saline control (NS) group, G-Rg1 blank control (G-Rg1) group, CCl(4) model (CCl(4)) group, and G-Rg1 preventive treatment (CCl(4)+G-Rg1) group, and an ALF mouse model was established by CCl(4) induction. Blood and liver specimens were collected from all mice upon sacrifice at 12 hours post-intraperitoneal injection. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBil) levels were determined using commercial test kits. The mRNA expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) was measured using real-time PCR. The protein expression of GRP78, CHOP, caspase12, and caspase3 were measured by Western blot. Histological changes in the liver were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the expression of GRP78 and caspase3 was detected by immunohistochemistry. Hepatocyte apoptosis was determined using terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Quantitative data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, and subsequent pairwise comparisons were performed using the LSD-t method.Serum ALT, AST, and TBil levels in the CCl(4)+G-Rg1 group were significantly reduced compared with those in the CCl(4) group (ALT: 691.30± 108.06 U/L vs 980.66 ± 110.29 U/L,= 365.07,<0.05; AST: 195.40± 15.41 U/L vs 319.44 ± 89.32 U/L,= 115.64,<0.05; TBil: 1.09± 0.11 mg/dl vs 1.56 ± 0.12 mg/dl,= 211.29,<0.05). The relative mRNA expression of GRP78 and CHOP was significantly lower in the CCl(4) + G-Rg1 group than in the CCl(4) group (<0.05). The relative protein expression of caspase3, GRP78, caspase12, and CHOP was significantly reduced to different extents in the CCl(4)+G-Rg1 group compared with those in the CCl4 group (<0.05). The CCl(4) + G-Rg1 group showed reduced liver tissue degeneration and necrosis compared with the CCl(4) group. Furthermore, the CCl(4)+G-Rg1 group showed significantly fewer brown granules in the liver than the CCl4 group (<0.05), indicating that G-Rg1 preventive treatment reduced CCl(4)-induced hepatocyte apoptosis.G-Rg1 prophylaxis can inhibit inflammation and reduce hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis during CCl(4)-induced ALF. Its mechanism may involve the suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related signaling molecules to alleviate hepatocyte endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. The results of this study suggest that G-Rg1 may inhibit liver inflammation and hepatocyte apoptosis through multiple targets to protect liver function.