Ginsenoside Rg1 protects mice against streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Ginsenoside Rg1 protects mice against streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic by modulating the NLRP3 and Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 pathways.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2020 Jan 5 ;866:172801. Epub 2019 Nov 16. PMID: 31738935
Ginseng has been traditionally used to treat diabetes mellitus (DM) in China. Ginsenoside Rg1 is a major active ingredient in processed ginseng, which elicits proven biological and pharmacological effects. Although a correlation between nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and predisposition to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been identified, the mechanism underlying the potential function and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in DM have not been elucidated to date. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects and underlying mechanism of Rg1 on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1DM in mice through short or long-term observation. Concurrently, we intended to explore the relationships between inflammasome, pyroptosis and oxidative stress and the role of NLRP3 and Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in the development and progression of DM. Using ELISA and Western blot analysis, we found that Rg1 attenuated abnormally elevated blood glucose, reduced inflammatory factors IL-1β and IL-18 in the blood, decreased ALT and AST levels, promoted insulin secretion, and weakened the function of NLRP3 in mouse liver and pancreas. In addition, Rg1 protected against STZ-induced reactive oxygen species-mediated inflammation by upregulating Nrf2/ARE pathway, which further activatedantioxidant enzymes. Interestingly, Rg1 also regulated H3K9 methylation in liver and pancreas, as detected by immunohistochemistry. In summary, these data provide new understanding about the mechanism of Rg1 action, suggesting that it is a potential drug applied for preventing the occurrence and development of T1DM.