Ginsenoside Rg3 enhances the antitumor effects of radiotherapy for colorectal cancer - GreenMedInfo Summary
Ginsenoside Rg3 Sensitizes Colorectal Cancer to Radiotherapy through Downregulation of Proliferative and Angiogenic Biomarkers.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018 ;2018:1580427. Epub 2018 Mar 18. PMID: 29743919
Background: Radiation therapy is an important mode of colorectal cancer treatment. However, most people die of local recurrence after tumors become resistant to radiotherapy, and little progress has been made in treating radiotherapy-resistant colorectal cancer. Hence, novel agents that are nontoxic and can sensitize colorectal cancer to radiotherapy are urgently needed. Ginsenoside Rg3, a saponin extracted from ginseng, shows cytotoxicity against a variety of cancer cells through suppression of pathways linked to oncogenesis, including cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. In this article, we investigated whether Rg3 can sensitize colorectal cancer to radiation in vivo.
Methods and Materials: We established CT-26 xenografts in BALB/c mice and treated them with vehicle, Rg3, radiation, and combined Rg3 + radiation. Mouse quality of life, survival, tumor volumes, and inhibitive rates were estimated. NF-B activation was ascertained using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and immunohistochemistry. We also tested for markers of proliferation, angiogenesis, and invasion using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.
Results: Rg3 significantly enhanced the efficacy of fractionated radiotherapy by improving the quality of life of mice. Moreover, tumors from mice xenografted with CT-26 cells and treated with combined Rg3 + radiotherapy showed significantly lower tumor volumes (<0.01 versus controls;<0.05 versus radiation alone), NF-B activation, and expression of NF-B-regulated gene products (cyclin D1, survivin, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) compared with controls. The combination treatment was also effective in suppressing angiogenesis, as indicated by lower CD31microvessel density compared with controls (<0.05).
Conclusion: Our results suggest that Rg3 enhances the antitumor effects of radiotherapy for colorectal cancer by suppressing NF-B and NF-B-regulated gene products, leading to inhibition of tumors and prolongation of the lifespan of CT-26 xenograft BALB/c mice.