Stereoselective Anti-Cancer Activities of Ginsenoside Rg3 on Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Models.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2019 Aug 1 ;12(3). Epub 2019 Aug 1. PMID: 31374984
Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) has two epimers, 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (SRg3) and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (RRg3), and while Rg3 itself has been reported to have anti-cancer properties, few studies have been reported on the anti-cancer effects of the different epimers. The aim was to investigate the stereoselective effects of the Rg3 epimers on triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines, tested using cell-based assays for proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, migration and invasion. Molecular docking showed that Rg3 interacted with the aquaporin 1 (AQP1) water channel (binding score -9.4 kJ mol). Theoocyte expression system was used to study the effect of Rg3 epimers on the AQP1 water permeability. The AQP1 expression in TNBC cell lines was compared with quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that only SRg3 inhibited the AQP1 water flux and inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 (100μM), due to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1. SRg3 inhibited the chemoattractant-induced migration of MDA-MB-231. The AQP1 expression in MDA-MB-231 was higher than in HCC1143 or DU4475 cell lines. These results suggest a role for AQP1 in the proliferation and chemoattractant-induced migration of this cell line. Compared to SRg3, RRg3 had more potency and efficacy, inhibiting the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231. Rg3 has stereoselective anti-cancer effects in the AQP1 high-expressing cell line MDA-MB-231.