Ginsenoside Rg3 promotes inflammation resolution through M2 macrophage polarization. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Ginsenoside Rgpromotes inflammation resolution through M2 macrophage polarization.
J Ginseng Res. 2018 Jan ;42(1):68-74. Epub 2017 Jan 1. PMID: 29348724
Background: Ginsenosides have been reported to have many health benefits, including anti-inflammatory effects, and the resolution of inflammation is now considered to be an active process driven by M2-type macrophages. In order to determine whether ginsenosides modulate macrophage phenotypes to reduce inflammation, 11 ginsenosides were studied with respect to macrophage polarization and the resolution of inflammation.
Methods: Mouse peritoneal macrophages were polarized into M1 or M2 phenotypes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and measurement of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin Elevels were performedand in a zymosan-induced peritonitis C57BL/6 mouse model.
Results: Ginsenoside Rgwas identified as a proresolving ginseng compound based on the induction of M2 macrophage polarization. Ginsenoside Rgnot only induced the expression of(a representative M2 marker gene), but also suppressed M1 marker genes, such as, and NO levels. The proresolving activity of ginsenoside Rgwas also observedin a zymosan-induced peritonitis model. Ginsenoside Rgaccelerated the resolution process when administered at peak inflammatory response into the peritoneal cavity.
Conclusion: These results suggest that ginsenoside Rginduces the M2 polarization of macrophages and accelerates the resolution of inflammation. This finding opens a new avenue in ginseng pharmacology.