Ginsenoside Rg3 Reduces Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Induced by Transforming Growth Factor-β1 by Inactivation of AKT in HMrSV5 Peritoneal Mesothelial Cells.
Med Sci Monit. 2019 Sep 17 ;25:6972-6979. Epub 2019 Sep 17. PMID: 31527568
BACKGROUND Ginsenosides, including ginsenoside Rg3, are components of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae) used in traditional Chinese medicine. Long-term peritoneal dialysis induces peritoneal fibrosis that impairs ultrafiltration and is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of peritoneal cells. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on EMT induced by transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) in HMrSV5 human peritoneal mesothelial cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS The cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay measured HMrSV5 cell viability. The expression of EMT markers, E-cadherin, vimentin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The wound-healing assay determined cell migration. The S-phase of the cell cycle was assessed by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling, and expression of phosphorylated AKT was measured by Western blot. The effect of ginsenoside Rg3 and the AKT activator SC79 onthe TGF-ß1-induced EMT of HMrSV5 cells were evaluated. RESULTS Low concentration of ginsenoside Rg3 did not effect cell viability of HMrSV5 cells. TGF-ß1 treatment decreased the expression of E-cadherin, and increased the expression of vimentin and alpha-SMA and promoted cell migration of HMrSV5cells. However, co-treatment of ginsenoside Rg3 and TGF-ß1 significantly reduced TGF-ß1-induced EMT in HMrSV5 cells. TGF-ß1 increased the phosphorylation of AKT and increased the expression of Smurf2. Ginsenoside Rg3 reduced TGF-ß1-induced activation of AKT and Smurf2. SC79 reversed the effectsof ginsenoside Rg3 on TGF-ß1-induced EMT in HMrSV5 cells. CONCLUSIONS Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibited EMT induced by TGF-ß1 in HMrSV5 human peritoneal mesothelial cells by inhibiting the activation of AKT.