Ginsenoside Rg5 could be a potential therapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment. - GreenMedInfo Summary
The Preparation of Ginsenoside Rg5, Its Antitumor Activity against Breast Cancer Cells and Its Targeting of PI3K.
Nutrients. 2020 Jan 18 ;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 18. PMID: 31963684
Ginsenosides have been reported to possess various pharmacological effects, including anticancer effects. Nevertheless, there are few reports about the antitumor activity and mechanisms of ginsenoside Rg5 against breast cancer cells. In the present study, the major ginsenoside Rb1 was transformed into the rare ginsenoside Rg5 through enzymatic bioconversion and successive acid-assisted high temperature and pressure processing. Ginsenosides Rb1, Rg3, and Rg5 were investigated for their antitumor effects against five human cancer cell lines via the MTT assay. Among them, Rg5 exhibited the greatest cytotoxicity against breast cancer. Moreover, Rg5 remarkably suppressed breast cancer cell proliferation through mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and autophagic cell death. LC3B-GFP/Lysotracker and mRFP-EGFP-LC3B were utilized to show that Rg5 induced autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Western blot assays further illustrated that Rg5 decreased the phosphorylation levels of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and Bad and suppressed the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in breast cancer. Moreover, Rg5-induced apoptosis and autophagy could be dramatically strengthened by the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. Finally, a molecular docking study demonstrated that Rg5 could bind to the active pocket of PI3K. Collectively, our results revealed that Rg5 could be a potential therapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment.